Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Civil War essays On paper the North was far stronger than the South. It had two and a half times as many people, and it possessed far more ships, miles of railroad, and manufacturing enterprises. Southerners, however, had the advantage of fighting on home ground with better military leadership. But Union superiority in manpower was not so great as the gross figures suggest. Half a million people scattered from Dakota to California, could make no substantial contribution to Union strength. And every year Union regiments were sent to the West to fight Indians. Hundreds of thousands of Americans in loyal border states and in southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois worked or fought for southern independence. Though, every state furnished men for the other side, there was little doubt that more Federals than Confederates The South had superior officer personnel. For twenty years before Lincoln's inauguration, southern officers had dominated the U.S. Army. Another source of southern confidence was cotton. Secession leaders expected to exchange that staple for the foreign manufactured goods they The South's most important advantage was that it had only to defend relatively short interior lines against invaders who had to deal with long lines of communication and to attack a broad front. The Confederacy also had no need to divert fighting men to tasks such as garrisoning captured cities and holding conquered territory. In a short war, numerical superiority would not have made much of a difference. As the war continued, however, numerical strength became a psychological as well as a physical weapon. During the closing years of the conflict, Union armies, massed at last against critical strongholds, suffered terrible casualties but seemed to grow stronger with every defeat. Any staggering Confederate losses sapped the southern will to fight. Every ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
German Holidays Customs and Celebrations The German holiday calendar has several in common with other parts of Europe and the United States, including Christmas and New Years. But there are several notable holidays that are uniquely German throughout the year.Ã Here is a month-by-month look at some of the major holidays celebrated in Germany.Ã Januar (January)Ã Neujahr (New Years Day)Ã Germans mark the New Year with celebrations and fireworks and feasts. Feuerzangenbowle is a popular traditional German New Years drink. ItsÃ main ingredients are red wine, rum, oranges, lemons, cinnamon, and cloves. Germans traditionally send New Years cardsÃ to tell family and friends about events in their lives during the past year. Februar (February)Ã Mari LichtmessÃ (Groundhog Day) The American tradition of Groundhog Day has its roots in the German religious holidayÃ Mari Lichtmess, also known asÃ Candlemas. Beginning inÃ the 1840s, German immigrants to Pennsylvania had observedÃ the tradition of a hedgehog predicting the end of winter. They adapted the groundhog as replacement meteorologist since there were no hedgehogs in the part of Pennsylvania where they settled. Fastnacht/Karneval (Carnival/Mardi Gras) The date varies, but the German version of Mardi Gras, the last opportunity to celebrate before the Lenten season, goes by many names: Fastnacht, Fasching, Fasnacht, Fasnet, orÃ Karneval.Ã A highlight of the main highlight, the Rosenmontag, is the so-called Weiberfastnacht orÃ Fat Thursday, celebrated on the Thursday before Karneval.Ã The Rosenmontag is the main celebration day of Karneval, which features parades, and ceremonies to drive out any evil spirits.Ã April:Ã OsternÃ (Easter) The Germanic celebration of Ostern features the same fertility and spring-related icons- eggs, rabbits, flowers- and many of the same Easter customs as other Western versions. The three major German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland) are predominantly Christian. The art of decorating hollowed-out eggs is an Austrian and German tradition. A little bit to the east, in Poland, Easter is a way more relevant holiday than in Germany May: May Day The first day in May is a national holiday in Germany, Austria, and most of Europe. International Workers Day is observed in many countries on May 1. Other German customs in May celebrate the arrival of spring. Walpurgis Night (Walpurgisnacht), the night before May Day, is similar to Halloween in that it has to do with supernatural spirits, and has pagan roots. Its marked with bonfires to drive away the last of winter and welcome the planting season.Ã Juni (June):Ã Vatertag (Fathers Day)Ã Fathers Day in Germany began in the Middle Ages as a religious procession honoring God the father, on Ascension Day, which is after Easter. In modern-day Germany,Ã Vatertag is closer to a boys day out, with a pub tour than the more family-friendly American version of the holiday.Ã Oktober (October): Oktoberfest Even though it starts in September, the most German of holidays is called Oktoberfest. This holiday started in 1810 with the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Therese vonÃ Sachsen-Hildburghausen. They held a big party near Munich, and it was so popular that it became an annual event, with beer, food, and entertainment.Ã Erntedankfest In German-speaking countries, Erntedankfest, or Thanksgiving, is celebrated on the first Sunday in October, which is usually also the first Sunday following Michaelistag or Michaelmas. Its primarily a religious holiday, but with dancing, food, music, and parades. The American Thanksgiving tradition of eating turkey has usurped the traditional meal of goose in recent years.Ã November: Martinmas (Martinstag) The Feast of Saint Martin, the Germanic Martinstag celebration, is sort of like a combination ofÃ Halloween and Thanksgiving. The legend of Saint Martin tells the story of the dividing of the cloak, when Martin, then a soldier in the Roman army, tore his cloak in two to share it with a freezing beggar at Amiens. In the past, Martinstag was celebrated as the end of the harvest season, and in modern times has becomeÃ the unofficial start of the Christmas shopping season in German-speaking countries in Europe. December (Dezsember):Ã Weihnachten (Christmas) Germany provided the roots of many of the American celebrations of Christmas, including Kris Kringle, which is a corruption of the German phrase for the Christ child: Christkindl. Eventually, the name became synonymous with Santa Claus.Ã The Christmas tree is another German tradition that has become part of many Western celebrations, as is the idea of celebrating St. Nicholas (whos also become synonymous with Santa Claus and Father Christmas).
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Regression and Statistical Effects - Assignment Example The data is divided into two groups. The total data set is divided into 4 segments: low lifetime, low revenue; low lifetime high revenue; high lifetime, low revenue, and high lifetime, high revenue. The first step ion the analysis is the calculation of bivariate PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s correlation coefficient between lifetime and profit. The author graphically analyses the trends between profitability and lifetime of the customer. Then, a linear regression model is developed to describe the relation for the four segments. The author then suggests a method using discriminant analysis that helps managers find out the most profitable customers. The research finds that it is not necessary that long-life customers are more profitable than short-life customers. The author also concludes that long-life customer do not necessarily pay more, and have higher costs. Regression analysis has been used in the study to the relation between the profitability of the customer and time. The researcher regress the profitability of the 4 segments with respect to time using the equation The relation between the profitability and time can be ascertained by the sign of the regression coefficient. A positive coefficient indicates a positive relation between the profitability and time for the particular segment. The researcher also makes use of a dummy variable to reflect the effects of a large first month purchase because purchase amount for the first month is generally found to be higher than succeeding months. Besides this, the researcher also attempts to draw broad conclusions regarding the direction of relation between the profits and time by using PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s correlation coefficient, and charts depicting the behaviors of the 2 groups. The small correlation coefficient (0.175 for Cohort 1 and 0.219 for Cohort 2) indicates a moderate linear relation between the lifetime duration and lifetime profits. Besides this, the researcher draws the graphs with lifetime
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Budget Proposal - Assignment Example Though the economy has witnessed decrease in unemployment, there is still a large proportion who has failed to find full time jobs. Corporate profits have risen dramatically, but the wage rate and income level has failed to witness the same growth. It should focus more on adding value to the rising middle class and create a hub for jobs. It should work for many and not for few. US should try to attract more high tech jobs for its middle class. A growing middle class is a key indicator of a growing economy. Bringing jobs will not solve the problem, but its people should be educated, trained and better equipped to meet the requirement of the jobs. This will not only improve the per capita income of US, but will also create high revenue for the government through large base of tax payers (Mankiw, 2008). They key areas that should be the main focus towards a balanced budget would include sectors like, infrastructure and development, education, clean energy, small business, manufacturing, health and defense. These are the critical areas of government expenditure that are to be increased while the other sectors should be decreased. The other sectors include justice, transportation, SSA, Science foundation, treasury, interior, veteran affairs, agriculture, etc. From the revenue the budgeted tax collection should be increased. The sources include income tax, corporate tax, social security tax, excise and customs. Estate and gift tax to be reduced. The specific target areas include the sectors that will help augment the revenue for the government and significantly reduce the budget deficit. Though it is totally not possible to eliminate the deficit in the short run, but it can be reduced to a sustainable level. All the sectors are critical to the growth of the economy, yet there are cert ain sectors as mentioned above that needs government aid to complement the vision of developing the middle class and creating jobs. Health and
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Defense Of Humbert Humberts Novels English Literature Essay The narrator of Vladimir Nabokovs novel Lolita, Humbert Humbert, denounces himself and refers to himself as a brute, (Nabokov 193). It is all too easy for many readers to add their own condemnation; after all, Humbert is a grown man who over the course of the story lusts after and engages in sexual relations with a twelve year old girl. Yet a deeper reading of the material reveals that there may be more to the story than a simple case of pedophilia. An examination of character and symbolism in Vladimir Nabokovs Lolita provides evidence to support the theory that Humbert is a sympathetic but flawed character who is manipulated by Dolores Haze. First of all, Humbert offers an argument for his actions that allows insight into his reasoning. The relationship between Humbert and Lolita is not socially acceptable, but Humbert tries to normalize his actions, citing Poe, Proust, and Petrarch to show how norms have altered over time, (Rothstein 22). Humbert defends himself from time to time by citing historical relationships that were similar to his with Lolita, pointing out that such relationships were acceptable in certain times and places, and even arguing that many girls of Lolitas age have reached a state of physical maturity. When he states that soon I found myself maturing amid a civilization which allows a man of twenty-five to court a girl of sixteen but not a girl of twelve, it becomes clear that Humbert views society, rather than himself, as the flawed factor in this equation (Nabokov 16). Regardless of his arguments, according to the standards of twentieth century American culture Humberts relationship with Lolita is s ocially unacceptable and he remains branded as a child molester. Once more, Humbert is saved from being entirely evil. Humbert is not interested in children, and is described as having the utmost respect for ordinary children, with their purity and vulnerability, and under no circumstances would he have interfered with the innocence of a child, (Nabokov 19-20). Douglas Fowler agrees, asserting that Humbert is no deflowerer of innocent children (49). Instead, Humberts interest lies with what he calls a nymphet, or a young girl who attracts those much older than herself and who is a deadly little demon among the wholesome children, (As Nabokov 16-7). As predatory as his behavior may appear, Humbert has no intention of corrupting or harming the innocent. Unfortunately, these rationalizations lose some of their effectiveness when taking into consideration that they come from an adult who should know better. On the other hand, the argument that Humberts inner child plays into his behavior provides an alternative explanation for those actions. Near the beginning of the text, Humbert relates the tale from his childhood of a seaside romance with a girl named Annabel, which was broken off first by the interference of a pair of adults and finally by the girls death. This sad situation reflects the poem Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe, with its tale of lost love. I was a child and she was a child, In this kingdom by the sea: But we loved with a love that was more than love- I and my Annabel Lee; (Poe 7-10) Humbert feels intrinsically tied to Annabel, again shadowing the speaker of the poems assertion that nothing[c]an ever dissever my soul from the soul of the beautiful Annabel Lee, (Poe 32-3). It can be argued that Humbert never entirely grew up as a result of this incident; part of his soul was stunted by his unconsummated childhood love affair. Humbert himself admits to the influence that these circumstances have on later events when he says that in point of fact, there might have been no Lolita at all had I not loved, one summer, a certain initial girl-child, (Nabokov 9). The concept that Humberts inner child influences his behavior is reinforced by yet more evidence from the story. For example, when Humbert and Lolita set off on their initial road trip he showers her with gifts and goes out of his way to entertain her, referring to himself as eager, hopeful Hum, (Nabokov 140). This reads like a nervous young boy trying desperately to please the girl whom he admires, hoping to catc h her attention and gain her favor. The fact that Humbert expresses disgust with his own adult form, which he refers to as his adult disguise, also lends support to this argument (Nabokov 39). Margaret Morganroth Gullette points out that to Humbert, [a]ll grownup characteristics over-sized frame, hairiness, smell are unnatural to the soul that feels itself to be essentially childlike, (223) and that this is a loathing which he projects onto adult women, (222). The idea that Humbert is actually a child trapped in a mans body makes his infatuation with Lolita if not socially acceptable, then at least somewhat more understandable. If the reader can find a trace of innocence by delving beneath Humberts sinister surface, an examination of Lolita exposes a surprising lack of virtue lying underneath her childlike mask. Nabokov establishes the inconsistency of her character within the very first paragraph: She was Lo, plain Lo, in the morning, standing four feet ten in one sock. She was Lola in slacks. She was Dolly at school. She was Dolores on the dotted line. But in my arms she was always Lolita (9). The girls constantly shifting name mirrors the metamorphic quality her character; in one moment she is an injured child, and in the next she reads as a calculating seductress. In many ways she seems to be an average American child, and yet she has none of the innocence that childhood implies. The truth is that she is aware of Humberts infatuation with her and torments him with lines such as [w]ell, you havent kissed me yet, have you? (Nabokov 112). Humbert may never have gone so far as to actually have intercourse w ith a nymphet were it not for his interactions with Lolita. In fact, it is Lolita who actually seduces Humbert, and then goes on to reveal a history of sexual deviancy. Suffice to say that not a trace of modesty did I perceive in this beautiful hardly formed young girl whom modern co-education, juvenile mores, the campfire racket and so forth had utterly and hopelessly depraved, Humbert comments, (Nabokov 133). Because of this previous corruption, Nabokov saves him from the act of actually deflowering precocious Dolores Haze and shifts moral responsibility away, (Fowler 149). This encounter occurs in an inn named The Enchanted Hunters, introducing the symbolism of the hunter, by which Humbert is a hunter whose plans are turned on their head by the youthful nymphet. This theme is echoed later by Lolitas involvement in a play titled The Enchanted Hunters, in which she portrays a perfect little nymph who places several lost hunters under hypnosis (Nabokov 196). Indeed, Humbert spends t he entirety of the story under Lolitas spell. Perhaps the most compelling argument in Humberts favor is that he truly loves Lolita. At first it seems that his love is based upon his view of her as the reincarnation of his lost Annabel, but while Lolitas resemblance to Annabel may have sparked Humberts attraction to her, the idea that this is the driving force behind his attraction soon loses its potency. As Humbert explains, A little later, of course, she Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ was to eclipse completely her prototype, (Nabokov 39-40). Thus, it becomes clear that Humberts love is for her, and not for a mere replacement of Annabel. The novel is filled with Humberts endearments for Lolita and his obsession with her is palpable. However, there is a difference between obsession and love, and throughout the novel the nature of his feelings for Lolita is ambiguous. It is at the end of the novel that the true extent of his love for Lolita is revealed. As Noni Tamir-Ghez writes, only at the end does he (and therefore the reader) understand that he actually loves Lolita, not the nymphet in her, (82). When Humbert finally locates Lolita after three years of searching, he discovers that his nubile nymphet has been replaced with a heavily pregnant and worn-out house-wife. Surprisingly, the man who has been disgusted by signs of aging throughout the entirety of the novel is not repulsed by this glaringly adult version of Lolita. Rather than dissipating, his love for her shows through with full force. He insists that I loved my Lolita, this Lolita, pale and polluted, and big with anothers child, (Nabokov 278). Humbert shows the most humanity when he not only discovers the true depth of his feelings for Lolita, but also takes responsibility for his part in the events in the story. He relates an incident during Lolitas absence when he listens to the voices of children and comes to realize that the hopelessly poignant thing was not Lolitas absence from my side, but the absence of her voice from that concord, (Nabokov 308). Only no w does Humberts love for Lolita overcome his need for her. This combined with his regret for his actions makes it easier for the reader to sympathize with him. Humbert attests to his own guilt and the entire novel is intended as a confession. However, if Lolita can be viewed as the victim of a child molester, then Humbert can also be seen as the victim of both his own warped mind and the manipulation of a deviant child. Without the context of the story it would be difficult to understand Humberts actions, let alone forgive him for them. However, Nabokov provides ample material to support the conclusion of Humberts vulnerability. Upon examining his character, Humbert is shown to not truly be a monster, but instead a deeply flawed individual: emotionally stunted, self-deluded, and irresistibly drawn to that which society has deemed is unattainable.
Friday, January 17, 2020
1.0. A report presenting market data in order to inform a cereal company Bokomo Ltd. To consider whether to expand more in the United Kingdom market. 2.0 Executive summary. This is a short report, containing marketing data on both the cereal market and a specific business, Bokomo UK. The data was obtained from secondary marketing research. BokomoÃ ´s website was one of the main reference guide. With the findings and analysis, it was recommended that Bokomo should expand their own brand products more in the UK. The PEST analysis of the UK grocery industry included in this report was used to highlight the external factors that can affect BokomoÃ¢â¬â¢s operation and interpret how these factors will influence Bokomo. Furthermore, through the market analysis it was found that KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s and Weetabix mainly lead the cereal industry, followed by Nestle and Jordans. These companies have a wide range of brands targeted at different consumers, and they have customer loyalty, which can make it harder for newer companies to enter this sector. As mentioned before, in the cereal market there are a large variety of targeted consumers like children, women, and families. The main key trends in the market are convenient snacks and consciousness towards health. Apart from that, own branded labels are also gaining popularity as they offer consumers the same product at a cheaper price. SWOT analysis allowed us to devise the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal analysis. Strengths included their well-known reputation and customers such as large food retailers (TescoÃ ´s), to which they sell manufacture and packaging services. Weaknesses consist of the negative aspects the company faces, including their not household name, and general negative publicity they face in this complex sector. Opportunities were devised from the social factors from the PEST analysis as changes in consumer tastes and trends are opportunities were this company can benefit from by meeting those needs. These were alsoÃ an important part of the report as it affected the final recommendations for the company. Threats included the financial recession and increasing levels of immigration. Bokomo Foods is a major cereal producer in the United Kingdom, established around 80 years ago. Despite not being a household name, is a UK leading cereal maker and the company has achieved diversity by producing a range of own-label products. Furthermore, they manufacture branded products for large companies, as well as branded packaging services like Bag in Box, Pot or Pouch. All of these services are for leading retailers such as TescoÃ ´s, SainsburyÃ ´s and MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s, among many others. 3.0 Introduction + Aim. This is a report whose aim is to present market data in order to inform Bokomo plc. a cereal company, whether further expansion in the UK market is beneficial at this time. The report will identify and analyse the current business situation, using SWOT analysis, and review the macroeconomic perspective of the general UK grocery industry using PEST analysis. The SWOT analysis will help us examine the specific company factors, as it is essential to understand these in order to relate them back to the PEST and market trends. Both internal and external factors affect how Bokomo will operate now and in the future. 4.0 The grocery market environment Ã¢â¬â PEST analysis 4.1 Political Political factors have a great influence on the analysis of external factors since they are determined by the degree of government intervention in the economy. The political situation in the UK is stable. Her MajestyÃ¢â¬â¢s Government, led by Prime Minister David Cameron of the Conservative Party, is mainly concerned about the financial crisis affecting economies all over the world and to strengthen the economic position of UK globally. Through employment legislations, the government encourages retailers to provide a mix of job opportunities from flexible, lower-paid and locally-based jobs to highly-skilled, higher-paid and centrally-located jobs (Balchin, 1994). Migration has a large impact on the grocery industry, as it provides new customers, as well as opportunities for supermarkets to cater to the different culinary cultures of immigrants. Migration also leads to a change in size of labour pool, which could have an effect on the availability of workers. Latest figures from the Office for National Statistics show some 503,000 people came to live in the UK in the year ending June 2013, compared with 517,000 people the previous year (ONS.gov, 2013). 4.2 Economic Economic factors are important to consider in regard to the UK grocery market, as they are highly influential to demand, costs, prices, and profit. One of the most influential factors on the economy is high unemployment level, which decreases the effective demand for many goods, adversely affecting the demand required to produce such goods. Unemployment in the UK is at 7.1% as of January 2014, according to BBC. Another highly relevant economic factor is the grocery market size and the market growth. IGD forecast that the UK grocery market value will be worth Ã £205.9bn in 2018, a 21.3% increase on 2013 (IGD.com, 2013). This is beneficial news to Bokomo, since any expansion would be possible in regard to the availability of area in the market to expand. Another market characteristic of importance is the amount of spending on groceries in regard to overall retail expenditure in the UK. The grocery marketÃ¢â¬â¢s share accounts for 54.9p in every Ã £1 of UK retail spending (IGD.com, 2013). 4.3 Social According to Askew (2013) sales in the cereal industry have been under pressure in these past years, especially due to the changing social trends and habits of consumers. Even though sales in this market have been stable, growth has been slow. Traditional breakfast habits have changed and people consume fewer cereals because of a busier lifestyle. Also increasing number of consumers skip breakfast. An increase in female workers has also had an impact on this, which is why competition for convenient options is growingÃ more each time. An increasing number of people now look for easy and quick alternatives to sitting down and eating. However, they expect to receive the same nutrients and healthy benefits with these convenient options. A growing number of women now pay special attention to what they are eating, checking the labeling, nutritional information and ingredients of each product. Increasingly, women have a greater concern with their weight and healthy eating. Lately, the demand for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cereals has declined because of the sugar content it has. Cereal companies use marketing to their advantage and attract kids with unhealthy products. Their main source has been television adverts and most of the cereals for children have high sugar content with low nutritional value, a fact of which more parents are aware. Apart from consumer concerns about health, they are also becoming more aware of the environment. In this specific market, many cereal companies now control their water use, energy use, waste produced, etc. Most of them also pay close attention to the packaging of the product, like using recycled packaging. Another social factor that affects the grocery market in general is the diverse culture in UK. There are so many people with different cultures that do not choose cereals as their first choice for breakfast; instead they have their own eating habits. Therefore, it is important for the producers in the grocery market to understand the needs of the entire population and meet them. Furthermore, supermarket own-brand products have gained a lot of popularity because of the economic downturn. As consumers have limited spending power, they prefer spending on a cheaper product that allows them to get the same benefits. 4.4 Technological In the present technological age, everyone, from personal to professionalÃ interaction, is highly reliant on technology. Therefore, technological advances are important for the development and maintenance of business culture. Advances in technology have allowed the grocery industry to grow. An excellent example is the demise of Blockbuster, who was reluctant to explore online options, and their consequent refusal to buy Netflix and to adapt to changing trends lead to their bankruptcy and final closure on January 14, 2014. Online grocery shopping holds 11% of the distribution channels of the UK grocery market and predictions suggest online sales in the US will grow by 15% in 2014 to Ã £189.3 billion, while in Europe, sales are expected to rise by 18% to Ã £131.2 billion. Online shopping has helped people spend their day more efficiently and reduced the effort of having to carry heavy grocery bags. Technological advances at the supermarket has contributed to more efficient customer service and stocking efforts. The adoption of Electronic Point of Sale (EPoS), Electronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTPoS) and electronic scanners have greatly improved the efficiency of distribution and stocking activities, with needs being communicated almost in real time to the supplier (Finch, 2004). Devices such as the self-checkout machine and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) have permitted the grocery industry to grow and accommodate customers in an effective way. 5.0 Description of product specific market 5.1 Main competitors The leading cereal brands and the biggest competitors of Bokomo cereals in the UK are KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s and Weetabix, reported Companies&Markets (2013). KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s arrived in the UK in 1922 and since then has maintained its position in the market, by focusing on innovation and expansion of their products. In 2012, it had 32% of value share, leading in the UK cereal market offering a wide range of products. Over the years, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has expanded to over 180 countries in the world and has around 39 brands of cereals. Weetabix, on the other hand, was launched in 1932; it has been aÃ long-standing brand and has fought its competitors to stay in this position in the UK. Weetabix has also introduced many different brands and has been innovating to adapt to consumer preferences over the years. Also Jordans, a breakfast cereal company based in Bedfordshire, founded in 1855. Although, the company produced its first cereal in 1981 called Original Crunchy, it was in the years between 2000 and 2005 when it faced rapid growth and became one of the largest cereal brands in the UK. Its great focus over the years has been on the packaging, to make it stand out in grocery stores and it is also known to be included in the Ã¢â¬Å"healthy, natural cereal segmentÃ¢â¬ Moreover, Nestle formed in 1990. It was launched as a joint venture between General Mills and Nestle S.A. and named Cereal Partners Worldwide (CPW). They offer the traditional cereals, as well as a range of brands including the world-known Cheerios. 5.2 Targeted consumers Cereal companies target many different kinds of people, although the easiest group of people to target has been children. BMSG (2013) stated they do it through advertisements on television, and somehow try to grab their attention by creating colourful, animated images and providing gifts in the cereal box each time. Another group targeted in this sector are the women because of their increasing concern for health and weight loss. Along with the children, women also form a big part of the consumers of this market. Nowadays, there are so many brands that have launched low-fat cereals and cereal bars also. Some also provide some advice, tips and dietary plans, Nytimes article (2010). Generally, families in the UK are also targeted consumers because some families still sit and have their meals together and believe that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Apart from that, families are more concerned with what they are eating, especially making sure that the smaller ones eat healthy (Marketingmagazine(2010) Unlike maybe some students at university who would not pay so much attention to their breakfast, particularly not on a daily basis. 5.3 Key trends in the cereal market Marketingmagazine (2008) stated A rising key trend in the cereal industry is the quick and convenient Ã¢â¬Ëgood to goÃ¢â¬â¢ snacks, like cereal bars. Cereal bars have gained a lot of popularity among a wide range of audience in recent years because people not having time for breakfast. Due to this reason, there has been a significant decline in the sales of the cereal market. Companies have been mostly focusing on this convenient aspect of the market so that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t just skip breakfast entirely and their business doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t face a loss. As health also plays a crucial role in this market and recently people are more conscious about what they are putting in their body, convenient snacks are the best option as they cover both points. Nowadays, Ã¢â¬Ëgood to goÃ¢â¬â¢ snacks are not just used for breakfast but also during the entire day as an alternative to other unhealthy snacks. As a result of the sudden popularity of these snacks, now there are a great variety of them in different formats. On the other hand, the popularity of own branded labels is growing in the grocery market. It saves consumers a significant amount of money and they offer a similar or better quality product. It has resulted in a much higher level of competition in the market. 5.4 SWOT Analysis Bokomo website (2014) 5.4.1 Strengths Bokomo is UKÃ¢â¬â¢s leading cereal maker; this is a major strength as they have established a firm position in the British cereal market. They operate in various markets inside the cereal industry, providing food manufacture, retailing and catering. Bokomo can provide tasty, fresh cereal products any business is looking for, at a very competitive and cost-effective priceÃ¢â¬ . British company (although owned by South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s Pioneer Foods) with substantial manufacturing plants in Wellingborough and Peterborough. This means Bokomo has the resources and specialist expertise to offer unique flexible manufacturing and packaging services. Companies needing a brand-newÃ breakfast cereal raced through New Product Development (NPD) or an innovative production line set up in record time can contact Bokomo. This makes them have an advantage as nowadays there are many organisations looking for branded cereal products. Bokomo is a world-class player, and in order to maintain that s tatus they need world-class facilities. They have two factories in the UK, specifically in Wellingborough and Peterborough. These factories offer them a cutting-edge manufacturing plant, in other words, the latest, high quality, reliable and sustainable facilities. This leads to the production of high quality products. Food standards are also controlled and supported by SAP business information software, which makes customers feel more confident and secure with the products and services Bokomo delivers. BokomoÃ ´s experts in the management team and the companyÃ ´s aim of constantly innovating and removing old production facilities has helped them produce large quantities of high quality products very efficiently and to the shortest imaginable lead-times. Their customers know Bokomo as a business that main objectives is to offer high quality products. This has been maintained by using high quality ingredients and top experts in recipe formulation. They are one of only 2 manufactures that produce wheat biscuits in the Northern hemisphere enabled them to have the largest control and knowledge of this production process. Even if Bokomo UK is based in the United Kingdom, they have also diversified. Geographic market diversification has enabled them to sell in many countries around Europe, Scandinavia and even as far as the United States of America or the United Arab Emirates 5.4.2 Weaknesses Bokomo stated Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢ve possibly never heard of usÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â this means that individual customers do not know them as their own Ã¢â¬â branded products is very niche, and they are more specialized in producing in a business to business way. This is a very common weakness for companies that operate Behind the Brand. Constant changing of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s tastes (opting for cereal bars, instant porridge or other breakfast solutions) can be considered a weakness, as its difficult and expensive to innovate and keep up to meet their needs. Difficulties to compete with well known brands cerealsÃ products such as Corn Flakes, Crunchy Nut, Special K. Have to create a delicious product that attracts customers quickly and expensive to implement the R&D and marketing. On the other hand it can also be considered and opportunity. Negative publicity to which ready-to-eat cereals have been subjected due to their high sugar content 5.4.3 Opportunities Social trends are important opportunities for Bokomo. Customers aiming towards healthy living or any other lifestyle changes means there is an opportunity towards which research and operate in. They have achieved and been keeping up to date with this as they have many products related to this trend. Great health benefits, such as products enabling the final consumer to control cholesterol levels. Multi-grain flake is another trend and potential opportunity for Bokomo. Consumers are changing their tastes towards healthier goods, and leaving behind old-fashioned sugary confections. Consumers are also increasingly purchasing Branflakes as they are considered to be great for supporting a healthy digestive system. Another trend Ã¢â¬Å"busier schedulesÃ¢â¬ , people are increasingly feeling they have no time to spend on having breakfast and snacks. Bokomo muesli is available to cater for the increasing demand for Ã¢â¬Å"breakfast on the goÃ¢â¬ . They offer them in bags and boxes, which facilitates the final customer to transport to their work place. This is an example of an opportunity for Bokomo because if they keep-up to date with trends, they will become more efficient and desirable for large retailers to purchase their products, and everyone will benefit form the sales. UK retailers are also focusing on added-value products: Add value by introducing natural minerals and vitamins into whole grain wheat and making the final product more healthy and nutritional. Own-label share of the business mix for large supermarket retailers. It is a main direction for Bokomo to go towards to as they can increase considerably their business operations, as the focus is now towards manufacturing own-label and branded products. Bokomo has realized the immense potential for expansion as the large retailers keep increasing the sale of this type of good. Ã¢â¬ËOne-stopÃ¢â¬â¢ shopping, or shopping in large supermarkets were customers can find any type of product in the same building has beenÃ beneficial for Bokomo as these businesses are their main clients. If they increase their sales, Bokomo will also benefit from this, as they will sell them more and so increase revenue will mean increase levels of profitability. 5.4.4 Threats The cereal industry offers products which are considered to be relatively expensive, which can be easily replaced with simpler breakfast choices such as bread. The financial recession has been a main factor for the decrease in expenditure, specially concerning families, as there are other much cheaper products to replace the cereals and cereal bars. High unemployment has made a substantial impact on the demand for such goods, adversely affecting the demand required to product those goods. Increasing levels of immigration specially in the UK, has meant that they do not have the same culinary cultures and so those breakfast products will not satisfy the needs and wants of everyone. 5.0 Recommendations With the above analysis it is better for the company to target smaller retailers where their own labeled products wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be affected by competitive brands like KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, and when they achieve this they should concentrate more on developing their own branded products around the UK. As mentioned above in the SWOT analysis, cereal products are considered to be expensive due to the added value implemented on them so it would be better to decrease these levels of adding value and start off with lower prices, in recession periods. 6.0 Limitations Bokomo website allowed us to obtain up-to-date and official information and statistics of the company. The information was limited because the company sold themselves and emphasized on its positive aspects because they have to promote their brand to the consumers. A part from this we also used other sources including, online articles about food industry, which helped us, get an un-biased view of the company and the cereal market as a whole. TheÃ drawback of using other sources or secondary research was that the methods used were unknown so we examined the most official and valid sources. 7.0 References Askew, K. 2013. Breakfast cereal: Are cereal sales going soggy? [Online] Available at: http://www.just-food.com/analysis/are-cereal-sales-in-developed-markets-going-soggy_id123417.aspx Bainbridge, J. 2010. Sector insight: Breakfast cereals | Marketing Magazine. [Online] Available at: http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/990662/sector-insight-breakfast-cereals Bainbridge, J. 2008. Sector Insight: Cereal bars | Marketing Magazine. [Online] Available at: http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/817580/sector-insight-cereal-bars Balchin, A. (1994) Part-time Workers in the Multiple Retail Sector: Small Change from Employment Protection Legislation? Employee Relations, Vol. 16 Iss: 7, pp.43 Ã¢â¬â 57 BBC News. 2014. UK unemployment rate drops to 7.1%. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-25841570 BERKELEY, C. 2013. Cereal companies leverage online marketing to target children with sugary products | Berkeley Media Studies Group. [Online] Available at: http://w ww.bmsg.org/newsroom/news-releases/cereal-companies-leverage-online-marketing-to-target-children-with-sugary-products Bodimeade, M. 2013. UK breakfast cereals market dominated by KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s and Weetabix. [Online] Available at: http://www.companiesandmarkets.com/News/Food-and-Drink/UK-breakfast-cereals-market-dominated-by-Kelloggs-and-Weetabix/NI6602 Bokomo.co.uk. n.d. About | Bokomo. [Online] Available at: http://bokomo.co.uk/about Business News Daily (November 22, 2013) PEST Analysis: Definition and Examples, Available at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5512-pest-analysis-definition-examples-templates.html Euromonitor.com. 2013. Breakfast Cereals in the United Kingdom. [Online] Available at: http://www.euromonitor.com/breakfast-cereals-in-the-united-kingdom/report Igd.com. 2013. UK Grocery Retailing. [Online] Available at: http://www.igd.com/our-expertise/Retail/retail-outlook/3371/UK-Grocery-Retailing/ Internetretailing.net (March 18, 2014) UK retailers expected to make
Thursday, January 9, 2020
I will never forget the day I walked downstairs at two in the morning. I stood in the doorway of my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom watching my parents crying their eyes out while yelling at my sister. How could this happen to you? Why did you want to do this? Why did I get a call from the cops at two in the morning saying that you were thinking about killing yourself, my mom yells, fiercely shaking in fear. I hate my life, my sister screams back at them practically swimming in her own tears. By this point, both of my brothers have awoken and are now standing alongside me witnessing this heartbreaking scene. But why Casey, my dad softly says, trying to hold it together. My sister begins to yell again, Because people are constantly texting me making fun of me, telling me I m a whore and saying that I should just kill myself because no one actually likes me. As soon as she finishes her sentence my Mom drops to the floor crying. I along with my other brother immediately start crying as well. 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